I. Dedication

I dedicate this book and its companion randyrambling2.wordpress.com to: my brother Steve, for suggesting that I create a blog, that became this book and its companion; my youngest son Matthew, for setting me up on WordPress and naming the URL; my oldest son Andrew, for proofreading and editing, if he can; my friend Chuck, for getting me started on science and the Bible after my stroke; my mother Harrietta, for mentoring me after my stroke, on the composite details of my upbringing Grace Movement Berean church Bible study doctrine (and before that where my parents met at the Fellowship Bible Church in East Grand Rapids where my uncle Gary was Pastor) (my doctrine is all nondenominational); my friend Steve, for suggesting that I include Bible verses to give my commentary God’s Word authority, and finally; my wife Maureen, for helping me get through my stroke and putting up with me as I do.

Title: The Myth of Evolution, and Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth

Author: Randall J. Hoogerhyde

Link: randyrambling.wordpress.com

link: randyrambling2.wordpress.com The I AM, Consciousness and the Universe—Body Spirit and Soul.

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Posted(written) date range:

From 9/25/2015 to 01/30/2021 when, for the third time, I decided I was done posting chapters because at 103 chapters it got too long, so I split the original book in two and in the process added a couple new chapters. I will be doing editing as long as I can.

II. Foreword

This book has two different themes—the myth of evolution (ME), and rightly dividing (RD) the word of truth(the Bible). The different chapters on these two themes (ME) and (RD) are interspersed throughout the book:

– theme 1: (ME) the myth of evolution, includes the importance of distinguishing, the fact of plant and animal intra-genus family(created kind) microevolution variation within created kinds over hundreds/thousands of years as a beautiful forest of life, from the fiction of plant and animal inter-genus family macroevolution large scale change amongst and between the entire plant and animal kingdoms over millions/billions of years, as one gigantic tree of life. The term, evolution, biologically, means the myth of the spontaneous beginning of life from non-life followed by the hypothesis and myth of inter-kind macroevolution gross change, not the fact of intra-kind microevolution variation within a genius family(created kind); the creation vs. evolution debate presented in this book includes the indefinite time gap/interpretation between Genesis 1:1,2: when Lucifer rebelled and was cast out of the third heaven to the first heaven and down to earth, the original creation and its “without form, and void” destruction (this is my interpretation, see randyrambling2.wordpress.com, I remember when I was young, wondering why the Bible started out in the beginning saying the earth was, “without form, and void”), and then the subsequent young time new creation 6,000 years ago and the following cataclysmic world wide flood in the day of Noah 4,000 years ago; this theme is the 6 thousand year young earth and young solar system supernatural creation; vs. the secular deep time 3.5 billion year old solar system and earth and 13.5 billion year old universe evolution naturalism. The distant past is history, not science. Our history book is the Bible to guide us in interpreting our observations and measurements in the present; note: some of the deep time universe evolution naturalism may be able to be bridged and accommodated by the gap theory/interpretation between Genesis 1:1,2, but not the creation of the sun and moon, and life on earth which are all part of the 6,000 year old young time new creation described in Genesis 1;

– theme 2: (RD) rightly dividing the word of truth, per II Timothy 2:15, includes the importance of distinguishing between the Kingdom and the church ie. between Judaism(law) and Christianity(grace)(the church which is His body) written about only by Paul only in the Pauline epistles; you can think of this as distinguishing between the Star of David, and the Cross, where Jesus of Christianity is Jehovah of Judaism, the one in the same, only begotten Son of God.

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Here is an overview of my math and science background, and my computer software career that suddenly ended when I had a severe right-brain stroke; I have been trained in mathematics and computer science. After college, and after a brief internship and then my first computer programming job, the first part of my career was in CAD software engineering for 3D surface and solid modeling, especially patented 3D surface model mesh generation/flattening/wrapping/draping/layup/slide on surface model and 2D pattern layout, and 2D image CAD software, as a programmer and project manager. This all fit perfectly with my interest and my college training. Then I moved on to web programming and database management, and in the end became a MCPD full stack e-commerce software developer subcontractor (you can see my LinkedIn page for a description of my career).

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During this time, my hobby was: reading math and science books (I have boxes full of them), playing golf on a golf league, jogging and working out in the gym and pool lap swimming in the morning before work. Hiking on the weekends. Then for six months I started biking, and the Lord put His hand on my shoulder and said, “now it’s time,” and at 57 and 1/2 years old, I suddenly had a stroke. As bad as that was and now is, the Lord took something terrible and turned it into something good.—that’s how I look at it. II Corinthians 12:7-10—I wrote this book and its companion, along with two other books, an autobiography, and various other documents in my Google document library.

Jesus was always my God, but now math and science are no longer my god; though, I am still very interested in math and science, but they(origins and the future) are now tempered and guided by the Bible. Thus, this book and its companion, which hopefully will help give my two sons a rationale for believing the Bible is God’s Word.

My Christian denomination/doctrine hierarchy:

– Christian(Protestant)

– Evangelical fundamentalist

– Dispensational premillennialism

– Grace Movement, Berean Church (where I went to church before going to college—-now called Rush Creek Church)

– Fellowship Bible Church (where my uncle was Pastor, and where my parents met)


Doctrine highlights:

  • salvation by grace through faith alone in Jesus alone (faith + nothing);
  • water baptism and communion are not required for salvation, and strictly speaking, they are not even appropriate for us today;
  • individual and group Bible study, rather than a given catechism, rightly dividing the Bible between Judaism(law) and Christianity(grace), see (RD);
  • belief in: the imminent sudden and surprising resurrection/rapture of the body of Christ (the church which is His body) to heaven, and the subsequent 7 year tribulation on earth, ended by the second coming of Jesus on the Mount of Olives, the final resurrection of all(the unsaved non-believers and pre-Paul Jews), and the 1000 year millennial Kingdom on earth for the nation of Israel Jews and Gentiles grafted in before Paul;
  • belief in the literal 6 24 hour day creation, as recorded in the book of Genesis;
  • neither water baptism nor communion are appropriate today in the church age(dispensation) of grace(the mystery); rather, you are baptized by the Holy Spirit into the body of Christ when, in prayer, you accept Jesus as your personal Savior, water baptism is a religious ritual that was instituted by John the Baptist as a showing of your faith during the time of Judaism(law), not cleansing of sin, it is contrary to grace through faith alone in Jesus alone; communion is a throwback to Judaism and the Passover, my further thought is: we were not there to witness or be directly told about Jesus and His crucifixion, so we can not have a mental image to remember as our remembrance, communion is a religious ritual that is unnecessary and contrary to grace through faith alone in Jesus alone, “eat my flesh and rink my blood” in John chapter 6 means reading and studying the Bible for Spiritual nourishment, not communion, see John 1:1,2 together with John 1:14, where Jesus ‘is’ the Bible(the Word);
  • eternal torment of unsaved non-believers is the devil’s lie; body(dust) + spirit(breath) = soul(being), ie. you do not have a soul; rather, you are a soul (you have a spirit);m
  • hell, Sheol, Hades, death, and grave are all synonymous, not a place of torment, when you die, you do not immediately go to heaven, or any other place, your body goes to the grave to wait in know-nothing death(sleep) until the resurrection of your body(dust) when it reunites with your spirit(breath) and you are again a living soul(being) in the meantime your spirit(breath) has gone back to God Who gave it,,and you have no sense of time, so to you the person who died it will seem like you are immediately in heaven, or at the great white throne judgment. Your spirit is your breath of life and nothing more until it is united with your body at creation, as in Adam and Eve, at birth(conception), or at resurrection to be a soul(being); though, I think your spirit somehow also might carry some of you consciousness snd memories. I have chapter on this in my companion book.

I accepted Jesus as my personal Savior at Grace Youth Camp, late one night in the dark on the athletic field with my cabin counselor.


It is my primary concern in this book to be understanding of the different views that the reader may have on historical science hypothesis (not really even a theory) about our supposed evolutionary origins, and overall Bible interpretation doctrine, while being true to what I believe based on what the Bible says when you read it, and where appropriate, read it literally. If you do not read the Bible literally, where appropriate, you are on a slippery slope of open interpretation, putting man’s ideas ahead of God’s Word; and, rightly divide it between the Kingdom and the church ie. rightly divide the Bible between Judaism(law) and Christianity(grace). Meaning, you have to separate out the church as a parenthesis faith (that begins with Paul), from within the religion of Judaism()law); otherwise, you will have verses that conflict, and you will have a false doctrine. Regarding origins, I am thinking of millions of years of macroevolution naturalism hypothesis/theory ie. putting man’s deep time evolution ideas of naturalism ahead of God’s Word that the creation was a 6 24 hour day supernatural creation 6,000 years ago. Recorded in Genesis 1; meaning, you want to tell God what He did and how He did it; rather than letting God tell you what He did. Whenever the term evolution is used in this blog(book), unless specifically qualified, it means inter-kind macroevolution, as opposed to intra-kind microevolution variation within created kinds, that we see happening around us all the time. Microevolution causes people to falsely think that macroevolution is how we got here. Macroevolution has never been observed, it is just an interpretation of the past from bones in the ground, and observing microevolution in the world around us in the present. Thus making macroevolution a hypothesis not a theory.

All Bible verse references are from the New King James Version (NKJV) Bible

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References:

Books: the Scofield Reference Bible, annotated by C. I. Scofield, Dispensational Relationships, by C. F. Baker;

Twitter: follow @lesfeldick, @lesfeldickbible, @lesfeldickdaily;

YouTube: dispensationalism, John MacArthur;

Web and TV: http://www.answers.tv;

Any comments or questions are welcomed.

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Thank you for reading my book.

I hope you enjoy it and find it interesting and useful.

Randy

III. Table of Contents

I. Dedication

II. Foreward

III. Table of Contents

IV. Prologue

V. Disclaimer/ Acknowledgement

VI. Acknowledgements

1. (ME) Lucifer’s Rebellion—the Original Creation, and the New Creation

2. (ME) Some Obvious Reasons why We Are Created, Not Evolved

3. (RD) Faith Alone, in Jesus Alone

4. (RD) The Apostle Paul—Our Apostle

5. (ME & RD) Christianity a Faith, Not a Religion

6. (ME) Why Evolution is Incompatible With the Bible

7. (RD) Overall, What Does the Book Say—What Picture Does it Paint?

8. (ME) The Fallacy of Man Caused Climate Change

9. (ME) Noah’s 3 Sons—the Roots of Human Variations(the Major Races and Sub-Races)

10. (ME) Origins, Naturalism, and the Scientific Method?

11. (ME) Creation vs. Evolution in Health and Medicine?

12. (ME) The Evolution Lie—Theory or Hypothesis

13. (ME) Creation Forest or Evolution Tree

14. (ME) Creation is History Not Theory

15. (RD) Day of the Lord

16. (RD) Why the Rapture is Required—Judaism vs. Christianity—the Kingdom vs. the Church

17. (ME) Science as God—Naturalism and the Grip of Secular Science

18. (RD) One Reason Why the Rapture Doctrine is Not a Contradiction

19. (ME) Why it is Important to Believe in a Young Universe and Young Earth Creation

20. (ME) The Imaginary Symbiosis Dilemma

21. (RD) Righty Dividing—the Dispensational Changes in the Way God Handles Man

22. (RD) Noah’s Ark and Rapture Prophesy Parallel

23. (ME) Noah’s Ark vs. Evolution—Moses vs. Darwin

24. (ME) The Imaginary Obstetric Dilemma

25. (ME) The Plausibility and Truth of Dragon, Sea Serpent, and Flood Legends

26. (ME) Origins—Literal Genesis vs. the Religion of Evolution

27. (RD) The Rapture vs. the Second Coming—Christianity vs. Judaism (Judeo-Christian)

28. (RD) Catechism/Tradition vs. Bible Study—Salad Bowl vs. Rightly Dividing

29. (RD) Eschatology—the Dual Eternal Kingdom of God

30. (RD) The Great White Throne Judgement, the Second Death, and the Lake of Fire

31. (RD) The Rapture, and After

32. (ME) It Was Not That Long Ago That I Believed the Myth That Humans Evolved From Ape Like Protohuman Life Forms

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(some of the chapters posted below include video link references, along with other link references in support of my thoughts, and my Bible interpretation doctrine and related science described in the chapter posts containing the links)

V. Disclaimer/Aknowledgement

Both the rightly dividing, and eschatological knowledge necessary to obtain the Bible interpretation truth herein, along with some other Bible doctrine, were obtained by phone call and email questions from me, and answers from my mother. The chapter on regeneration was mostly due to FaceBook Messenger questions from me and answers from Grandville Bible Church Pastor Tom Couch. This is not to say I haven’t added my own thoughts and ideas, in support of what was explained to me to further the reasoning for the doctrine herein. The science, and the chapters titled, “my Thought…” or “My Idea…,” and many other chapters are entirely my own thinking and reference.

VI. Acknowledgments

I would like to thank my former fellow swimmer and friend Randy, for first suggesting that I create a blog to keep people updated on my stroke recovery, unfortunately at that early time in my stroke, I was not recovered enough to do that. I am now recovered enough to do this, for which I thank the Lord, my family, my friends, my doctors, and my therapists (see my FaceBook page for pictures and descriptions of some of my recovery); my brother Steve, for another suggestion to create a blog that became this book and its companion; my former fellow swimmer and friend Chuck, for getting me started on science and the Bible after my stroke during his once a week, Tuesday visits; my mother Harrietta, for helping me with her extensive Bible knowledge; years ago, my uncle Gary, an ordained Reverend, trained at Moody Bible Institute, for his Biblical insights on the body and the spirit together making us a soul(being), the sleep of death, and his understanding from the original Bible languages that hell, Sheol, Hades, death, and the grave are all synonymous, he spoke often about these subjects together in his messages during his Bible classes that my family and I attended on Sunday morning when I was growing up in my late teens; my former fellow swimmer and friend Steve, for suggesting that I include Bible verse references; my former work associate and friend Ben, for his extensive mathematics knowledge; my former work associate and friend Kelly, for his Bible knowledge and reminding me about the Biblical fate of the universe; my cousin Don, for his coment, that you could argue that evolution requires faith, just as creation does, if not more, and for sharing with me what he found in the Jack Van Impe book, Revelation Revealed, regarding Isaiah and Jeremiah seeming to refer to the USA, as being the country having a significant role during the tribulation, and the future war and second seal, but I removed this because my mother said these symbols refer to the Greeks, Persians, Medes, and other historical empires; Grandville Bible Church Pastor Tom Couch, for his reassurance to me that the Lord is loving and that my having a stroke was not punishment for things I did before my stroke, and that I should not feel burdened and responsible that my sons do not seem to believe in Jesus, but that I should cast this burden on the Lord, He can handle it, and the way he addressed his prayer to the Father in Jesus’ name (I usually pray to the Lord); my youngest son Matthew, for helping me during the recovery from my stroke and putting up with me as I do, for naming this URL and setting me up on WordPress, and hopefully doing cover artwork for an off-line paper book version of this (he has studied and is interested in graphic design); my oldest son Andrew, for proofreading and editing, if he can (he is an English major), and finally; my wife Maureen, for helping me during the recovery from my stroke and putting up with me as I recover.

Please note that the people I have acknowledged above have there own beliefs, thoughts, and ideas, and that they do not all agree with all that I have written, except my mother on the Bible related thoughts. The thoughts and ideas written as verse commentaries and the scientific thoughts and ideas are my own, as is the interpretation of the Bible with help from my mother, which all conforms to my family and church Bible study and searching the Scripture, upbringing.

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All Bible verse quotes are taken from the New King James Version (NKJV) Bible.

1. (ME) Lucifer’s Rebellion—the Original Creation, and the New Creation

The Genesis 1:1,2 original creation, new creation gap interpretation(gap theory) of an original creation, Genesis 1:1, followed by an indefinite amount of time (maybe even millions or billions of years, or maybe not) of the dinosaurs when Lucifer, the highest angel who became Satan, ruled the original perfect dinosaur world on earth after he was cast out of the third heaven. Lucifer defiled this original perfect creation—-“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 1:1—-That was then judged and destroyed by God when—-“The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.” Genesis 1:2—God only creates perfection. The earth being without form, and void; and darkness on the face of the deep. Is either not perfection, or is preparation for the 6 24 hour day creation. The gap interpretation(gap theory) explains this beginning, if the earth being without form, and void with darkness on the face of the deep, was not just a preparation for the 6 day creation. It was destroyed by God because it was defiled by Lucifer. Then there was a new creation, the literal 6 24 hour day perfect creation without death(sin) that replaced the original perfect creation that Lucifer defiled. This is Bible interpretation that goes a long way toward reconciling deep time secular science naturalism origins with literal Genesis Biblical history, as follows: remnants of the old original creation would be what secular science naturalism now falsely hypothesizes as millions or billions of years of evolution. This includes, earth science geology, distant star and galaxy formation cosmology, and the dinosaurs, but not the creation of the sun and moon, and modern day plants and animals, including humans that God created in the new 6 24-hour day perfect creation. This means that the naturalistic beginning of solar are system and life on earth, and life’s macroevolution, producing all the variety of life on earth we see today, is still all a myth.

Between Genesis 1:1,2 is a good place to put the fall of Lucifer and his being cast out of the third heaven to the original earth creation, because it answers why the earth was originally without form, and void with darkness on the face of the deep, and because the fall of Lucifer would have had to be before the Garden of Eden where the serpent(Satan) deceived Eve. This then infers an original herbivore dinosaur perfect creation at some indefinite earlier time (possibly millions of years between Genesis 1:1,2), where the fallen highest angel Lucifer, who became Satan, ruled over snd defiled this original herbivore dinosaur perfect creation—-“Look now at the behemoth, which I made along with you; He eats grass like an ox. See now, his strength is in his hips, And his power is in his stomach muscles. He moves his tail like a cedar; The sinews of his thighs are tightly knit. His bones are like beams of bronze, His ribs like bars of iron. He is the first of the ways of God; Only He who made him can bring near His sword.” Job 40:15-19—-into a terrible predator and prey world of blood, struggle, suffering, sin(death) weld destroyed by God. This would be where Tyrannosaurus Rex and the other terrible predator dinosaurs come in, that were then destroyed by God—-ie. this dinosaur world was made “without form, and void; and darkness on the face of the deep” Genesis 1:2—Who then created a new perfect creation in 6 literal 24 hour days, containing the Garden of Eden. The Bible does not explicitly tell us that there is this gap between an original, and new creation; rather, it is Bible study interpretation—-“For now we see in a mirror, dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part, but then I shall know just as I also am known.” I Corinthians 13:12.

The dinosaurs existed in the original perfect creation. Then dinosaurs, like Tyrannosaurus Rex were originally herbivores, not carnivores, like lions in the subsequent new perfect creation were originally herbivores. They became predators after the fall of Adam and Eve, when Adam and Eve disobeyed God by eating the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. This all allows separating dinosaur plants and animals from modern day plants and animals; rather than having the flood in the day of Noah, destroy predator and prey dinosaurs, with juvenile dinosaurs on the ark 4,000 years ago, much later in history (mixing dinosaurs with modern day animals on Noah’s ark does not seem right to me). It also avoids the question of where did the dinosaurs go that were on Noah’s ark ie. why don’t we see them today? The answer is, they were not on the ark.

Dinosaurs would have become predators and prey when Lucifer became Satan and defiled the original herbivore perfect creation. These things are difficult to know for sure because they are Bible interpretation history not explicitly described in the Bible; though, Job 40 talks about the behemoth that reads like it was a dinosaur—-“Look now at the behemoth, which I made along with you; He eats grass like an ox. See now, his strength is in his hips, And his power is in his stomach muscles. He moves his tail like a cedar; The sinews of his thighs are tightly knit. His bones are like beams of bronze, His ribs like bars of iron. He is the first of the ways of God; Only He who made him can bring near His sword.” Job 40:15-19—It also is history, not science. It has been a deep time vs. young time rollercoaster ride for me. I’m not fond of thinking that baby dinosaurs were on Noah’s ark, but if they were, they could explain all the dragon slaying stories as not being fiction. The dragons would have been dinosaurs that survived the flood on the ark and grew up, but where are they all now? I think I prefer dinosaurs being in an old original creation.

Ezekiel 28:13-16. In the Book of Ezekiel there is a description of someone called the king of Tyre; though, there was an actual historical person who was the king of Tyre, the description the Bible gives of this person seems to go far beyond this human leader; though, in context, Ezekiel was first speaking about the historical king of Tyre, he seemingly moved into the dateless past with a description of the original fall of Lucifer to become Satan.

Admittedly, this is a difficult passage to interpret. There are many who believe that this is a description of the account of the original fall of Lucifer to become Satan. Though, some of the descriptions given may fit the historical king of Tyre, others certainly do not seem to. These include the expressions: “perfect in beauty,” “you were in Eden,” “you were on the holy mountain of God,” and “you were blameless.” These descriptions would not fit the actual king of Tyre. Therefore they are most likely to be understood as statements about the original fall of the angel who became the Devil.

According to conservative proponents of the gap theory, Genesis 1:1 describes the original creation of God—perfect in every way. Then, between verses 1 and 2, Satan rebelled in heaven and was cast out. Satan’s sin “ruined” the original creation; that is, his rebellion brought about its destruction and eventual death, and the earth was reduced to its “formless and empty” state, ready for the “re-construction.” The length of time involved is not specified but could have lasted millions or billions of years, or not that long (it’s indefinite), this would be the size of the “gap.”—-How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!” Isaiah 14:12—“For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:” Isaiah 14:13

“And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.” Revelation 12:9—A number of angels followed Satan, they are the demonic force. I personally believe Satan had a kingdom of angelic beings who dwelled on a perfect earth and had access to the heavens.

“I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.” Isaiah 14:14

“Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.” Isaiah 14:15

The universe spontaneously coming into existence from nothing, life’s spontaneous beginning from inorganic matter, and macroevolution naturalism, are like the proverbial fox in the hen house of the original Genesis 1:1 supernatural creation, and subsequent new literal 6 24 hour day supernatural creation.

2. (ME) Some Obvious Reasons why We Are Created, Not Evolved

The beauty and elegant complexity of DNA and the continuing mystery of its hidden higher workings that are continually being revealed by science, boggle the mind. It is obviously designed, not randomly evolved. Now, secular science will counter this by saying something like: given enough time and random mutations become a powerful and beautiful complex interaction that simply appears designed, but they have to say that, or admit an Intelligent Creator.

Same thing for the human eye and ear, in all their microscopic wonderful intricate complexity. They could not have begun and partially existed to evolve into what they are.

Of course there are ideas on this. For example, on how eyes evolved from unicellular organisms with eyespots that were patches of photo receptor light sensitive proteins that evolved into eyes, but this is just supposition to provide an answer for evolution naturalism.

A partially evolved eye or ear is of no use, so why would a partially evolved complex organ like an eye or an ear even begin, let alone exist for millions of years partially evolved and of no use? Eyes and ears are obviously wonderfully and intentionally designed (by God).

3. (RD) Faith Alone, in Jesus Alone

(faith + nothing)*1, God did two things that were perfect! The creation, and the perfect sacrifice of Jesus on the cross, His death, burial, and resurrection! You can not change either of these things in any way because they were both perfect, and complete! The Sacrifice of Jesus on the cross was perfect and complete because Jesus was both fully God and fully man, and He was perfect(sinless); now, in this age(dispensation) of Grace, we simply have to have faith plus nothing, to have salvation(eternal life), an escape from death. ___

*1 faith + nothing—Les Feldick: lesfeldick.com, lesfeldick.org, Twitter @lesfeldick, @lesfeldickbible, @lesfeldickdaily

4. (RD) The Apostle Paul—Our Apostle

Our apostle is Paul. Of all the authors of the books of the Bible, Paul is the only one who writes about the mystery—the church which is His body ie. Christianity.

The Christianity gospel grace message of mystery was revealed by Jesus as a secret only to Paul. It was on the road to Damascus when the bright light shone down on him and he fell to the ground—-“Now it happened, as I journeyed and came near Damascus at about noon, suddenly a great light from heaven shone around me.” Acts 22:6

This is rightly dividing between the Kingdom and the church, ie. separating Judaism(law from Christianity(grace)(faith + nothing).

In this way Paul stands at the headwaters of Christianity.